Fluid mechanics is the study of liquids and gases at rest or in motion. It covers a vast array of wild phenomena that occur naturally, with human intervention (on our behalf), which can be seen all around us every day! For instance, there are bio-fluids such as bloodstreams; they are not technically fluids because they don't flow like water does - but this type of behavior underlies many aspects within biomedical engineering. A few things do not involve fluids either directly or indirectly--we have technology invented by engineers for purposes other than just making things float on top of other substances: examples are air conditioners & cars. However, in order to work fluid mechanics is always at play in the background. In cars for example, when you step on the pedal, fluid mechanics helps to create a suction that draws fuel into the engine.
The study of fluid mechanics is similar to other courses in physics, such as rigid-body and deformable body solid Mechanics. There are strong similarities between the approach to studying these forces with their associated analyses used for each field; this can be helpful since many concepts originate from one discipline which then applies across many different fields. Fluid Mechanics includes Newton’s laws along with a few more modern theories like Bernoulli's equation governing fast-moving fluids. conservation of mass must also hold true so that no energy goes missing during an experiment or when calculating out how much weight will change based on altitude changes alone - the measurements of weight and pressure must be accounted for. The Navier-Stokes equations are used to find the velocity of a fluid in 3D space, and incorporate all forces between molecules through the use of an equation that resembles the continuity equation, with the addition of three more equations to account for viscosity (the force of friction between molecules).
Pressure: The pressure exerted by a fluid at a particular point is the result of the force applied to that point by the particles of the fluid. The magnitude of the pressure is determined by the density and velocity of the particles in the fluid. Temperature: The temperature of a fluid is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its particles. The higher the temperature of a fluid, the faster its particles are moving. Volume: The volume of a fluid is determined by the amount of space it occupies. The volume of a fluid can be changed by changing the pressure or temperature of the fluid. Density: The density of a fluid is determined by the mass and volume of the fluid. Specific weight: The specific weight is defined as the weight per unit volume and is commonly referred to as just weight. It may be expressed in N/m or lb/ft. It is a property of fluid under standard conditions (see below). Kinematic viscosity: The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is the property describing the ease with which it flows. It is defined as the ratio of absolute viscosity to density and may be expressed in stokes (St) or centistokes (cSt).
If elevation effects are neglected, the stagnation pressure, the largest pressure obtainable along a given streamline. It represents the conversion of all of the kinetic energy into a pressure rise. The sum of the static pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and dynamic pressure is termed the total pressure, pT. The Bernoulli equation is a statement that the total pressure remains constant along a streamline.
In this chapter we will discuss various aspects of fluid motion without being concerned with the actual forces necessary to produce the motion. That is,we will consider the kinematics of the motion—the velocity and acceleration of the fluid,and the description and visualization of its motion.
These various types of surface phenomena are due to the unbalanced cohesive forces acting on the liquid molecules at the fluid surface. Molecules in the interior of the fluid mass are surrounded by molecules that are attracted to each other equally. However, molecules along the surface are subjected to a net force toward the interior. The apparent physical consequence of this unbalanced force along the surface is to create the hypothetical skin or membrane. A tensile force may be considered to be acting in the plane of the surface along any line in the surface. The intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length along any line in the surface is called the surface tension
The flow regime in the first case is said to be laminar, characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered motion, and turbulent in the second case, where it is characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered motion. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow does not occur suddenly; rather, it occurs over some region in which the flow fluctuates between laminar and turbulent flows before it becomes fully turbulent. Most flows encountered in practice are turbulent. Laminar flow is encountered when highly viscous fluids such as oils flow in small pipes or narrow passages.
A dimension is a measure of a physical quantity without numerical values while a unit is a way to assign a number to the dimension. For example length is a dimension but centimeter is a unit.
There are two broad categories of turbomachinery, pumps and turbines. The word pump is a general term for any fluid machine that adds energy to a fluid. Some authors call pumps energy absorbing devices since energy is supplied to them, and they transfer most of that energy to the fluid, usually via a rotating shaft.. The increase in fluid energy is usually felt as an increase in the pressure of the fluid. Turbines, on the other hand, are energy producing devices—they extract energy from the fluid and transfer most of that energy to some form of mechanical energy output, typically in the form of a rotating shaft . The fluid at the outlet of a turbine suffers an energy loss, typically in the form of a loss of pressure.
Open-channel flow implies flow in a channel open to the atmosphere, but flow in a conduit is also open-channel flow if the liquid does not fill the conduit completely, and thus there is a free surface.
Recognize fluid properties, Analyze hydrostatic forces and buoyancy force and stability of immersed bodies, Apply momentum equation and Bernoulli equation in different flow settings, Demonstrate the basic knowledge of Navier-Stokes equations, turbomachinery, and dimensional analysis and similitude, Analyze lift and drag forces over immersed bodies, Communicate effectively in writing
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